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Mongolian Shamanism Traditions and Ceremonies

Direction and Color in Shamanism

Firstly, then, it is necessary to discuss our ancestors’ general conception and understanding of the universe, in particular, the matters of “direction” and “color”.      Researchers of this explained their understanding by dividing the directions into “good” |West and South| and “bad” |East| sides. Thereafter, some of them attempted to provide more detailed explanations […]


Rituals for an Ongon to enter a Shaman

The Shamans consider that an Ongon’s entering a Shaman and the Shaman trance involves a meeting with the spirits of their Shamans who died years before. In April 1991, shamaness Tsegmid of the Red Huular conducted offerings for Agar’s Hairhan (Deity)” in Bayanzurh soum, Hovsgol. At the end of her service, she said, “I was […]


The Decline of Shamanism

Even though Mongolian Shamanism struggled valiantly against Lamaism by diverse means, they were gradually falling under the influence of Lamaism. eventually, the Black and White Shamans became divided into the Black and Yellow Shamans. Counting the Choijins and Gurtems or Lama-Shamans of Red Buddhism, who existed before the spread of Lamaism in Mongolia. Mongolian Shamanism […]

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The Foundation of the Tengrism

Tengrism is considered that its foundation dates back to a period many thousands of years ago, that is, to the era of primitive systems. However, there remain a variety of different opinions concerning precisely when and where the religion originated.      Ch. Dalay, in his Brief History of Mongolian Shaman Worship, considered, “Religious beliefs […]


Heaven’s Lord or Guardian Heaven

The Heaven’s Origin Chinggis and his relatives of a supreme or Tenger origin, who had glorified their own Heaven as “Eternal Heaven”, were considered as sacred, or angels, with white bones and bodies. So they were protected from lightning. Moreover, other people, who worshipped any holy spirit of Chinggis Haan or his relatives, or who […]


The Struggle Against Lamaism

the effort of Haans, kings, and priests to spread Lamaism in Outer Mongolia met fierce resistance from Shamanism. The Shamans of Outer Mongolia countered the spread of Lamaism in many ways, of which the following are but a selection:       Firstly,  they used their own natural gifts and miraculous talents against the Lamas, about […]

Mongol praying at a shrine in urga

The influence of Buddhism

Since the second century B.C., Mongolia came under the influence of Buddhism from the South. As a result, the beliefs of Northern Shamanism existed side by the side with Buddhism. This was the start of the third historical stage of Mongolian Shamanism. Henceforth, there was an ideological rivalry between Buddhism and Shamanism; the former aiming […]

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The Imposition of Lamaism

As a result of the factors mentioned above, by the sixteenth-century Shamanism had declined to the point that it could no longer satisfy the demand and needs of Mongolian society. It was unable to prevent internal conflicts and rebuild national solidarity. Therefore, Tumed’s Altan Haan |1577| and Halha’s Abutay Sayn Haan |1587|, turned to Lamaism […]


The Conception of “Sansara” of Cosmos Space

The invocation of Baamyn Dulam, a shamaness of Chonos origin, who was born in 1909 in Javzandamba Hutagt’s Darhad Shavi |Disciples|, said: Your Majesty, by spreading incense to the Cosmos summit,  By sprinkling pure milk-wine as a banquet for you, By making smoke of Hangay taiga’s juniper to Blue Sky Space, By raising up Higher […]

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