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great gobi animals

Environmental protection in Mongolia from the ancient time

Protecting precious landscapes and historical monuments has enormous importance because they contribute to the ecological balance of Mongolia support important ecological processess and provide homeland for numerous threatened and endangered animal and plant species that represent different ecosystems. It also helps us to preserve our rich natural and cultural heritages and unspoiled habitat for the next generations.

From ancient times to the present day, Mongolian people have followed an old and amazing tradition in the protection and worship of nature, pristine landscapes, wildlife and their habitats. A great example of Mongolians respect for nature is reflected in the environmental regulations in the Code of Chinggis Khaan’s “Ikh Zasag” (translated as great rule) and in many other laws and regulations of the 16th century such as the code of Oirads and Khalkha Regulation”. There were 14 mountains recognized as sacred including Bogdkhan, Khan Khentii, Khognokhaan, Jargaltkhaan, Bayan, Suman Ulaan and Tovkhonkhaan, where hunting, cultivation and logging were completely restricted. The Bogdkhan mountain was officially protected in the 44th year decreed by heaven (1778).

Since 1809 patrols have been appointed to guard all 28 valleys of the mountain and the entrance. Permission to enter the area had been issued only by Bogdkhan himself. In 1818 Otgontenger and Bulgan mountains were officially declared as strictly protected areas.

In 1911 after Mongolia had come under the rule of Bogdkhaan Monarchy, Bogd-Uul mountain was renamed Bogdkhaan Khairkhan and a park administration was subsequently established with the purpose of protecting this mountain. Hence, the Russian scientist I.D. Laptaev once wrote “Mongolians are ahead of Europeans by many years in communicating nature and the environment”.

Since 1950, step-by-step measures have been taken to protect pristine landscapes. With the purpose of protecting nature and rare wildlife species of the Gobi, the great Gobi strictly protected area was placed under protection in 1975. In 1977 Khukh Serkh mountain range was protected. In 1991 Government of Mongolia approved a “Procedure on protected areas” established the network of protected areas and their protection rules and regimes and classified protected areas into 4 categories which became an initial step towards forming an integrated network of protected areas.

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