Genghis Khan organized an admirable system of communication in his vast empire, namely the horse relay. Station located along the main roads at intervals of about thirty kilometers offered rest and fresh horses to emissaries, and though these communication lanes vital military, economic and political information was disseminated at an amazing speed. Although The Secret History credits Ogodei Khan with the invention of this horse relay system, it was, in fact, Genghis Khan who introduced it. It survived many dynasties and officially existed in Central Asia until the mid-twentieth century when modern transportation and electrical communications media were introduced in Mongolia.
The Law Enforcer
Genghis Khan also left for his people a legal system, the Ih Zasag or yasaq. Although this Ih Zasag is not found today in written form, it has been preserved in oral tradition and parts of it are cited in later texts. These surviving parts show that it was an entire legal code enforcing strict discipline in the huge empire. The main concepts of Ih Zasag are recorded in the writings of Ata Malik Juvyani and Rashid al-Din Hamadani. The Ih Zasag was declared by the Ih Huraldai in 1206 and amended twice, in 1210 and 1218. this may have been the first written law among the steppe nomads. As an ambassador of a great civilization, the Persian historian Ata Malik Juvyani had low opinions of the Mongols but nonetheless, he noted, “When he became ruler, Genghis broke the primitive tribal rules and traditions before uniting the tribes under his empire and enacting an excellent law.”
Genghis ‘s Wise Rule
It would be unreasonable to depict Genghis Khan merely as a violent despot. The fact that he took care to revive ravaged cities and to encourage the development of trade and manufacturing shows that he appreciated the importance of having a dutiful, law-abiding and tax-paying citizenry. Only through strictly enforced laws could be put an end to petty theft and looting and establish protective control over the trade lanes. Respect for the Mergids Because of his intelligence, shrewdness and organization capability, Genghis Khan had difficulty finding copartners near him carry out his plans. In selecting his wise counselors, Genghis managed to overcome the nomads’ tendency to rely exclusively on their own Kim of a tribe. Hence3 he brought wise men, like Ye Lu Chucai, from all over the world, befriended them and used their help in establishing the rule of law. The contribution of Ye lu Chucai, advisor to both Genghis and Ogodei, to the development of this statecraft, was enormous.
Ye Lu Chucai
A Khitan, or Mongol, by birth, Ye lu Chucai had served several generations of Jin rulers and was one of China’s greatest scholars, statesmen, philosophers, and lawyers. A follower of Confucianism and an outstanding teacher born of China’s extensive tradition of state administration, he devised for Genghis Khan a unified system of taxation. It was not until the time of Ogodei that another system of taxation came to be used. In line with his words “A great nation has to have a great capital” Ye lu Chucai also led the nomads, who despised the sedentary lifestyle, to build the city of Kharkhorum on the steppe. For them, this was an architectural breakthrough. Never having misused his enormous power of influence, he died in 1243 when he was fifty-three years old, leaving his family only books, some musical instruments, and collection and a collection of medicines.
A Founder of an Integral Administrative System of Mongolia
Genghis Khan also left an integral administrative system called Ih Mongol. this system for governing a state of enormous size with an integral taxation system, an army under central command, an efficient communications network, a law code for the entire territory, and religious pluralism lasted for half a century.
Genghis Khan’s Invitation to Chang Qun
In administering the affairs of an empire there is the difficulty of having too short an outreach. In order to cross a river, one builds a boat. In order to organize the world, one has to employ the service of the wise and learned. While the import in governing the state from a single center does much harm to my heart and body, men of wisdom and learning who are capable of advising me have not yet emerged from among my ministers. According to what I have heard, teacher K’iou, you possess a noble nature and high morals, you have seen all thing sand what you have heard is right, your learning is deep and your knowledge broad, your habits are those of purity and moderation, and so you have developed and nature of saintly men and the wisdom of the reincarnated.