Xiongnu noble tribe or clan name. In the chapter about Southern Xiongnu of the “Hou Han Shu”, talking about the events held in 40-50 CE, described that there was a permanent marriage treaty system between ruling Kuanti clan with other 4 noble clans as Huyuni, Xiubi, Qiulin, and Lan. Most researchers support the idea of G.Sukhbaatar about that main clan of Xiongnu such as Huyan, Lan, attested also between Xianbei, which was the remains of the tribal dual organization.
In the framework of the Theory of Formation, the land is considered as an important industrial tool. As for the nomads, the land becomes a production tool together with livestock. The principle for using pasture causes it, as the theory explains. until the 2nd half of the 1950s, Soviet researchers raised a debate about the fact that the economic basis of feudalism in Mongolia was only land, or it was only livestock, or it was both of them together. Sh. Natsagdorj put forward his idea of the fact that a correct way of explaining the basis of feudalism in Mongolia is not emphasizing only land or livestock but taking both of them in their dialectic relationship. This principle of the Marxist methodology of land-owning relations description existed for a long time in our historical documentary and Xiongnu and Xianbei society was compared with the primitive kingdoms of western Europe of the 3-5th centuries CE.
The land was under state property in the Xiongnu Empire. Modern Chanyu was not possessive about his best horse and loved queen when Donghu people asked for them. However, when they asked for a piece of land between the two countries’ border which was not inhabited, he executed the officials who pretend that they agreed to give the land by saying that the “land is the basis of a country”. Moreover, he invaded the Donghu pretending the demand for them as aggression. This historical event is the evidence of the fact that land was in the possession of the state.
Our researchers believe that under the Treaty established in 198 BCE, the Great Wall became the border between Xiongnu and Han. The Donghu coveted the piece of land between Xiongnu and Donghu. In addition, there was the official named “Outo wang” who was responsible for the border guard. All these are sufficient evidence of that land was state property in Xiongnu.
The Xiongnu people developed the production method of nomadic husbandry in which land-owning efficiency was earned indirectly. For example, Tumet aristocracies from South Mongolia in the late Middle Age, let their subjects put their livestock out to pasture in their possessed land and regulated their movement. Nomadic economy, in which strength and fatness of livestock depended on the pasture and water, created a traditional culture to love the land, treat the nature and environment appropriately, and became a vital basis for state policy. For instance, clear evidence of this is that there is information about the fact that Xiongnu had its own special map of its territory. However, representatives of the Non-Marxist theory considered that the basis of nomadic economy was not connected with land relationships so on. Thus, although they did not deny the interrelation between land and livestock, they considered that land did not have any decisive influence on the nomadic economy. It is viewed that, as for nomads, land’s value increase when they communicate and have dealings with settlers.