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Manchu Control of Chinese-Mongol Relations

The monasteries that had sprung up in every corner of the country not only satisfied the spiritual needs of the Mongols but also served as centers of commerce and exchange of commodities. Every monastery, then, had either a small branch of a Chinese trading company or a commercial agent, which would collect raw material from Mongols in exchange for tea, tobacco, China was, fabrics and the like. Thus the spiritual and material needs, once met through wars, were now met through monasteries. Knowing that nomadic Mongols did not like the Chinese and despised Chinese sedentary culture, the Manchu rulers of Qing China were careful not to mix the two.

Vassal Treaty

     The treaty which the Javzandamba Hutagt signed with the Emperor Kangxi at Dlonnor was that of vassalage. As such, it prevented the Manchu from enslaving, plundering or otherwise oppressing Mongols, but allowed for Mongols to be under the general rule of the Manchu, pay the duties and taxes and, in return for all this, be protected from foreign, particularly Chinese, influence. Bu the Mongols and the Chinese, though both ruled by the Manchu, were not actually siblings enjoying identical rights. The Manchu, who had prohibited marriages with the Chinese for the fear of assimilation, later also forbade the Mongols from marrying the Chinese. Meanwhile, marriages between Mongols and Manchus were not only allowed but even encouraged. Thus a Mongol with a Manchu wife was granted the title of you.

Part o the Qing Dynasty With No Manchus nor Chinese

     Permanent residence of the Chinese in Mongolia was also banned by law, perhaps because the law-makers thought it impossible for a land-cultivating Chinese and a nature-worshipping Mongol to live side-by-side without conflict.

     Prior to and immediately after the occupation of the Dzungar Khanate, large contingents of Manchu troops had been stationed in Mongolia. Once it became evident that the Mongols were unable to revolt again, these troops were moved out. The Chinese who were growing crops in the Orkhon Valley to feed this army were also left in its wake. Trade was the only Chinese activity now in Mongolia.

A citizen (a Chinese)… is prohibited from taking a Mongol woman for his wife while doing a trade or growing crops in the Mongolian land. If such a taking a giving is done secretly and becomes evident upon investigation, girls shall be returned to their families. A citizen guilty of a secret marriage shall be punished in accordance with the law of the land…

A clause found in the last book of an eleven-volume edition of the Mongol Tsaaz Huuli (Mongolian Laws) published in 1762.

Trade Relations 

     Starting from 1720 the Manchu required special permissions for merchants going to Mongolia and mandated their return. Though this law was amended many times, its purpose and intent remained essentially the same until the twentieth century. It demanded that a Chinese trader first obtains a license in Beijing written in Chinese, then exchange it for a license written in Mongolian at the office of the judge either in Huree or Hiagt in order to secure his right to do business. 

     In addition to this, he was to return to China within a year, and if he planned to stay in Mongolia longer he had gone back to Beijing at least once during that period. Violation of the time limits for a stay in Mongolia and other breaches of law resulted not only in deportation but also in the permanent denial of the right to return. It was illegal for a Chinese merchant who came to Mongolia even to stay overnight with a Mongol family, and the law prescribed that he put up a tent and sleep separately. Chinese were forbidden to take a Mongolian wife and not even intimate relationships were allowed. These strict rules not only protected the Mongols from the Chinese influence but also became an example for future generations.

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