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Blue Sky

The Eternal Blue Sky – Tengri

According to the Secret History of Mongolia, many powerful enemies of Chinggis Haan were defeated by psychological pressure despite the superiority of their forces. For example, in 1201 a large army of many Mongolian tribes, under the banner of Jamukh, fought Chinggis and Wan Han. They were defeated because mainly by rain and flood allegedly caused by Naiman’s Bayrag Han’s carrying out a magic ritual with a “rain-stone” in support of Jamukh. As the saying goes, “a stone thrown straight up falls upon one’s own head”. Wan Han, also of the Hereid tribe, said repeatedly that “Heaven would not favor us” fighting against Chinggis and was duly defeated in 1203. From the standpoint of Shamanism’s consideration, this suggests that Chinggis Haan‘s own Heaven helped him to defeat his rivals by making them powerless and sapping their courage. 

     After his victory over the Hereids, according to the Secret History of Mongolia, Chinggis Haan beat his breast in gratitude and said. “I recognize Eternal Heaven”. Later he said, “It was a victory, whose door was open by Eternal Heaven”. In the Secret History of Mongolia, the “Eternal Heaven” is mentioned fourteen times, eleven of which are attributed to Chinggis Haan. His younger brother, Otchigin Noyon, and grandson Bat Haan |twice| and Tiv Tengger Zayran also mention the Eternal Heaven. However, the only time Tiv Tenger Zayran said this; that his that saying was aimed against the Mongolian state its ruler. 

     Chinggis Haan concluded in 1206 that the establishment of the Mongolian Empire and the unification of the Mongolian tribes were due to a “Great power created by Eternal Heaven’s mercy and the favor of Sky and Earth”. He considered that “The start of this support was a victory over the Hereids in 1203”. However, some events that took place after the foundation of a united Mongolian state, such as “We put the Sartuul people under our authority thanks to Eternal Heaven’s favor” were also attributed to this. “We had defeated Tanguds and took our revenge thanks to additional forces created for us by Eternal Heaven” and “Thanks to Eternal Heaven’s power and our brother Haan |Ogoodey|’s brightness we occupied Russia and eleven other states in all directions and have pulled back our golden rein”. All of the above testifies that his own Heaven or totem favored Temuujin when he was still in his mother’s womb, as he was born holding a clot of blood the size of an anklebone of a sheep in his right hand. At the age of nine, he reached his majority. When he was on the way to welcome the daughter of Olhunud tribe, his father died. It took place before meeting with his future father-in-law Dei Setsen. Temuujin knew in advance, by a dream of two white falcons with sun and moon on their wings, about the previous relationship between Dei Setsen and his father Esukhei in regard to the exchange of the betrothal gifts between them.

     After the victory over the Hereid, Chinggis Haan praised his Heaven and had it officially named “Eternal Heaven”. Consequently, all of his major victories after that time were attributed to the Eternal Heaven. Only Chinggis Haan and his relatives called it “Eternal Heaven”. This was also an expression of the division between the rulers and the ruled. In this way, all the Mongolian tribes were governed under the Eternal Heaven’s authority. The Black Banner incarnated Eternal Heaven in wartime and the White Banner in peacetime. These banners were raised over the Great Haan’s palace. According to Dorje Banzarov, although Eternal Heaven might be an intellectual object, as a result of some researchers findings, it is neither a superior strata of the Heaven, where Han-hormust was born, nor a cosmos space, but the most respectful title of the Heaven, which protected Chinggis Haan as a supreme being. Since 1203, Eternal Heaven has been the great banner, which began to mobilize all of the Mongolian people.

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