One of the most important achievements of Mongolian culture is its traditional medical treatment of domestic animals. Mongolians engaged in animal farming for many centuries and accumulated a great deal of experience that it transmitted to younger generations orally. The oriental sutra “Nei-jin” says: ‘The northern country is cool and cold. Cold diseases are frequently occurred. So, they cure cold diseases by cauterizing. They cure hot diseases by bleeding.” It is evident that during the Hünnü period there were two popular treatments: cauterization and bleeding. A Mongolian traditional medical treatment of the most ancient origin, which does not demand elaborate schooling, includes the Mongolian folk medical treatment of the domestic animals. Livestock breeders treat their animals (if those diseases are non-infectious) by fumigating, bathing, sweating, applying a poultice, covering with warm cloth or felt, setting bone, cauterizing, scorching, bleeding, lancing, shaking, massaging and stinting. Mongolians castrate animals skillfully according to the age of animals and seasons. The animals are treated by manual operation with surgical tools such as burning iron, lancets, pincers and tweezers. Our livestock-breeders operate animal’s skull and remove a tape-worm from the animal’s brains. They cut off outgrowth of gristles in a horse’s lips. They puncture nasal cartilage with lancet and take off the pus and cure the horse. The folk treatment of animals includes five general types of treatments, such as bloodletting, cauterizing, acupuncture, manipulation and bone-setting. Animal manipulation is called white magic. It is greatly associated with national customs and religious ceremonies. Folk medical treatment uses plants, beast limbs, and minerals.
SOME EQUINE AILMENTS
• Albin or “evil spirit” is treated with the burning mastic of larch;
• A proper treatment for evil spirit is to drench cup of ochre in the mouth of a horse.
Out of puff
• Bagtraa (convulsions) is treated by slightly slicing the second joint of the caudal vertebrae of a horse.
• If the patella of camel or horse is strained, healthy hind of the strained horse is bandaged closely above its hock until it gets numb. Then lead the horse. The horse is able to walk.
• It is cured by smearing the powdered mixing of lime, mica, oxytropis, miriophylla, peganum and burned ashes of bleached cranium of dog with the amadou on the gall of horse.
Suffering from starvation
• If a horse suffers from starvation, the right radius of the male horse bound tightly. If a horse is female, the left radius is bound tightly.
• Boil the rind of willow and drench it into mouth of horse. It can cure the ailment.
• If horse’s jaws jams, it is helpful to lance the horse’s temple.
• It is helpful to put a leather-sack on a horse’s head and cause it to choke.
• Drench the suffering horse with cold water.
• Horse suffering from lacrimal caruncle can be cured with placing the burnt pubes of the horse on its eyes.
• Have the horse suffering from mountain sickness smell a splinted stone. Ailment from the excessive intake of salt or saline
• Smear snuff into the eyes of the horse which suffers from excessive salt.
• Sponge and bathe the stale of white camel on the mange of a horse.
• Cauterize on the pelvis and sacrum of the jaded horse.
• Bleed the vessel of the healthy nostril of a horse.
• A boiled onion can cure diphtheria.
• Drench one cup of cold water mixed with an amount of larch equal to the size of a walnut by boiling.
• Smearing wolf’s bile on necrobacillosis and other ulcers is good.
• Bandage the suffering horse with good milk-vodka.
• It can heal if you smear the bile of wolf on the tongue of the suffering horse.
• It is important to puncture the tail of the suffering horse with lancet. If it fails, boil seven pieces of walnuts well and
pour the boiled water into the mouth of the suffering horse. It can cure the horse.
Tumour on the shoulder or chest of a horse
• First sear around the tumour, then sear cross the tumour with hot iron.
Hock strikes another hock
• Lance the leg vein. Inside ailments of lips
• Slice slightly the ailing portion of the lips inside and cut it off. Sponge the wound with cold water.
BACTRIAN CAMEL AILMENTS
Mare camel rejects its baby Mare camel does not suckle its baby. In this case, blow a flute, play a fiddle, whine a dog. The mare camel softens and starts suckling its baby when listens to these joyful and sorrowful melodies.
When baby camel discharges diarrhea, cut the terminal end of its tail and dip it in warm melted ghee.
It is good for the ailing Bactrian if you mix small amount of arsenics with the medium cup of vodka and drench it into the mouth of it. Then load it or cover it with warm cloth until the Bactrian exudes sweat.
• When Bactrian coughs, it is good to lance jugular vein or the blood vessel of its tongue.
• Boil inula and sophora, then give the camel suffering from flu. Boil nettle in bowl and give the camel the decoction of nettle.
When a Bactrian camel is affected with mange, it is necessary to drench one ladle of milk and one ladle of vodka and hitch for a while. The camel can get rid of mange. It is also good to smear mixture of equine fat and blood on the mange and lead it until the grease absorbs itself.
Sponge a lotion of powdered salt on the feet cracks. Then sponge the feet cracks alternatively. It can help.
Blow vermillion through the straw to remove leucoma. It can help.
Red patch on lips or tongue
• Place peacock-iron as jaw-lever in the mouth of the camel, pull its tongue and scrape it until blood seeps out. Then
sprinkle two ladles of powdered salt and drench water to swallow. It can cure the ailment.
• Pull the tongue and bleed several blood vessels of the base of the tongue with bodkin. It can also help.
Inflammation of nasal mucous membrane
The muzzle and lips of a camel can swell. If you press them you can feel a chill. In order to cure it, it is necessary to push a stick into the nostril and squeeze pus until it bleeds. Sprinkle powdered salt through the nostrils enough. If the ailment is progressing, cut off the needle like bristle under its tongue with scissors.
• Drench the urine of eight years old child into the mouth of the camel with pneumonic fever.
• Drench a mixture of sweet, juniper’s needles and stale of black sheep into the mouth of the camel.
• Bathe the Bactrian camel affected with pressure in the cold water.
• It can recover if you drench a mixing of water with three ladle salt into the mouth of the camel.
If a camel’s kidney is strained, pour water into its ears. The camel can shake its head. Then the camel can recover itself.
There is a cartilaginous band on the under surface of the tongue in the camel. Cut off the cartilaginous band with
sharp scissors and smear powdered salts with grease on the wound.
Boil a granulated sugar and garlic in the vodka and drench this decoction into the mouth of a camel to cure crab-yaws.
Boil limonite with vitriol and sponge the decoction on the red patch. Indigestion of allium polyrrhizum Bouillon (strong broth) and milk of white mare are good for curing the ailment.
Indigestion of ephedra
Pour bowls of fermented milk of mare and broth in the mouth of the suffering camel.
Indigestion of nettle
The treatment is the same as ephedra indigestion. To be chilled or frozen When a camel is chilled at summer time, it is better to lay the camel down on the heaps of sheep droppings and cover it with felt and drench certain amount of milk-vodka into the mouth of the camel.
Gall on the back
Cleanse the gall with cold water and sponge it with the decoction of valerian and peganum several times.
There is protuberance on the roof of camel’s mouth, because of its bad tending. The protuberance of the palate is sliced with sharp knife. Do it several times.
AILMENTS OF BOVINE ANIMALS
When you press the loin, it falls in. If you lance the hollow to two fingers thick, it can cure the ailment.
• Boil the snake’s slough and drench the decoction into the mouth of cattle.
• Drench vodka into the mouth of cattle and rug it until cattle sweats.
• Pound and boil the root of couch, administer the decoction to the ailing cattle.
• Mix old ashes with water in a good consistency and boil and cool it. Administer it to the ailing cattle instead of water. Boil the root of astragalus in water and cool it. Administer medicine to the ailing cattle to drive away the fever.
Boil and cool granulated sugar in water, administer the decoction to the ailing cattle or administer the infusion of white flour to the ailing cattle.
Burn vermillion, wormwood, fat, grain, boar’s fat and sulphate and fumigate cattle or sheep infected with lice with
Dip the apex of the tail of the suffering calf into the boiled ghee.
The parasitic worms cause itching of the cleft of cattle’s hoofs. In order to treat this ailment, slit the cleft and remove
the bots. Then let cattle stand on fresh lawn or muddy place.
The four legs of the manged cattle are sealed by rope. It is covered with felt. Burn old sackcloth under a pannier and
smoke the manged cattle from the pannier.
Retention of the placenta
Mushroom soup can help to remove the retainable placenta.
THE AILMENTS OF SHEEP AND GOAT
There is a wound of wolf-bite. There are plants which grow in the Gobi called ‘jishingarmuu’. If you burn it and treat the wound with the ashes of this plant, it cures the wound.
There are two types of sheep giddiness. One is called water and another is called blood. There are also other giddiness such as marrow-giddiness, viscera giddiness and leg giddiness. It is very important to distinguish them. The herb of sophora is good for curing this illness. Odontites and inula can cure a blood fever. In order to find the location of the bed-sore in the skull of sheep, you should press on it, and you will feel warmness, thinness and softness of the skull. There are tape worms. This location is cauterized by the hot iron and punctured by fleam. The tape worms are picked by pincers and tweezers. If an animal moves irregularly or turns anti-clockwise and its tears are trickling down, then it is water giddiness. Locate a bed-sore and cover it with soaked felt. Then cauterize it with a hot iron and puncture the skull and pick tape-worms. Then cap the hole with a felt, boil two kinds of plants, tactram and commitphora mukuk. Admit the ailing sheep the decoction of these boiled plants. Then apply a warm compression of the fried salt in the ghee on the spot of the ailment. The giddy sheep mostly moves irregularly anti-clockwise, it is blood giddiness. The treatment of blood giddiness is the decoction of zod, oxtongue (plant), and red sandal wood. Admit the ailing sheep the decoction and lance the cripto-vein under the lower-eye-lid of the ailed sheep. A sheep ailed with marrow-giddiness, leaps toward either east or west, prances, runs away and swaggers which is a symptom of marrow-giddiness.
In order to treat it is necessary to diagnose whether anthrax or not. First wash the wool and its yolk of a sheep, find out a carbuncle. This locates in the upper portion of forelimbs. This sore is brown pigment of thumb size. This is the carbuncle of the anthrax. The beetles (tsokh and yamaan khorkhoi, khar khorkhoi) can find out this carbuncle easily. It is said that they suck this carbuncle.
Tabes is a grub which emanciates a sheep. This grub comes from wormwood Artemisia and enters the nostrils of animal, penetrates into the brains of animals. This grub turns into tabes. If it enters viscera, it multiplies into various forms. Some of them are thicker than a hair, and longer than fingerspan. The decoction of the powdered arsenic with succulent nettles is good for treating tabes.
The oil distilled from the barks of cedar and pine is called as black oil by Mongolians. This oil is smeared on the mange of sheep or goat.
Colostration or colostric congestion
When a baby lamb is chilled, its colostrums are congealed. It is called colostration or colostric congestion. The four legs are grasped by the hands and its back is warmed up on the warm fire, colostric congestion can be removed. The pellets made from the pounded bistort can remove the trouble.
The whey can cure a carbuncled sheep. Poisoning from insect-eating The mash of the plain salted tea and the ashes of blue chips of cow and flour can remove the poison.
Blockade of nose
While a drought occurs, the nose of sheep is blocked. In this case push a stick into the nose slightly and then clean the nose. Then drench salted plain tea into the nostrils.
Do not let it suckle its mother, admit the lamb the plain tea and mash of bistort. It can stop the diarrhoea.
Boil water in a copper vessel and produce verdigris. Then drench this decoction into the mouth of the ailing goat.
• If there is eruption on the mouth of kids, the decoction of boiled barks of larch and pine is helpful.
• If you deposit the barks of larch in the hot embers and smoulder them, this smouldered ashes can cure the inflammation.
• Dip oats in the salted plain tea and sponge the eruption with it.