Becoming the Khan of Hamag Mongol was the start of Temujin’s astounding feat of conquering half the world. His immediate objective was to unite all the nomadic nation between the Altai and Khinggan Ranges. A political of rare aptitude in the history of mankind, Genghis shrewdly used the perpetual hostility of nomadic princes towards one another together with their even-present ambitions, vengeance, and jealousy, to achieve his own ends.
He first extended a helping hand to his wife’s rescuer Tooruul Khan, who had met with hard times and thereby secured the support of the Hereid tribe in a campaign against the Tatars, murderers of his father. At this time he sided with the powerful Jin Dynasty which was fighting with the Tatars, and so exercised his great desire for vengeance. After defeating the Tatars, Genghis Khan and Tooruul together subjugated the Taichuud and the Naiman tribes. But regarding the fate of the Hereid throne, which had sovereignty over the largest territory in Central Mongolia, then the two could not disagree more, and so their partnership was divided.
The Great Mongol Empire
Genghis Khan brought under his sole rule the lands from the Altai to the Khinggan Mountains and from Baikal Lake to the Great Wall, and in 1206 he declared the Ih Mongol (Great Mongol) Empire. Making his Hamag Mongol khanate the nucleus, he spent sixteen years of his life building the Great Mongol Empire around it. Oirads, Kirghiz, and Uighurs willingly submitted themselves to his rule. The Khan commended such “wise” acts by bestowing upon these tribes generous gifts of Mongol women and princesses.
Messenger of Heaven
One of the people who had the most influence on Genghis was the shaman Hohochii. The shaman, respected and rather feared, by the Khan himself, was held in awe by the nomads as a powerful sorcerer who communicated directly with Heaven. But he misused his influence by inciting Genghis’ brother Hasar to contend for the throne and the Khan retaliated by having the shaman’s spine broken in public. By punishing the revered sorcerer before the people in this way, the Khan reinforced his power among the nomads.
- 1204: Temujin reformed his military organization and established the Aravt, zuut, myangat rule. He fought the Naimaan and after capturing Tatatunga, he ordered him to teach the Uighur script to his children.
- 1205: Temujin united most of the Mongol tribes. He waged war for the first time against the Tangut Empire. Jamuha was executed.
- 1206: the Mongol Empire was established. Eighty-eight people were honored for their service to the state. The Ih Zasag law was enforced.