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Western Civilization

Western civilization is the youngest of all world civilizations. Scholars suggest that it originated around 700-800 A.C. The Western civilization found its true form during the 15th century in Southern Europe and was founded on the ruins created by the Mongols. After the collapse of the great civilizations of Greece and Rome, Europe went through almost a thousand years of Dark Ages, afterward was enlightened by the influence of Islamic science and culture. However, civilization transferred slowly between the Europeans and the Muslims who fought each other for centuries during the period called the Dark Ages.


A Process of Combination

     The 13th-century Mongol aggression combined the descendants of Genghis Khan started to fight amongst themselves, the Islamic-Christian accord fell apart and the Mongols sided with one side or the order. In 1268, Bat Khan’s grandson Munhtomor became Emperor of the Golden Horde and befriended the grandchildren of Mongke Khan, the Il-Khads, who were enemies of the previous emperor of the Golden Horde. 

     However, Munhtomor fought his cousin Abak and attacked the Mamluk. The Mongols in Syria sought help from the Golden Horde. Due to the confusing battles and alliances between cousins, a new association formed between Europe, Asia Minor, and Caucasia. 

     The enemy front consisted of the Golden Horde, Mamluk, Venice, Alfonso of Aragon on one side, and the Il-Khan empire, the Pope and Louis IX of France on the other. After hundreds of years, this division of power found a new form. 

    During these developments, the sudden breakthrough of the Mongols, together with the Japanese, Indian, Chinese and Central Asian civilizations they brought with them, made a historic change. The Mongols were not a creator of the culture they bought to Europe, but they transferred it.

The Dark Ages

     The Time Period of European economic and cultural power declined after the fall of the Roman Empire, is recorded in history as the Dark Ages, referring to the traditional polarization of light and dark. Written sources relating to this period are very rare. The term is a calque of the Latin saeculum obscurum and was first used by Caesar Barone in 1602 in his description of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The Italian scholar Petrarch coined the term to criticize the Latin literature in 1330, describing the time following the Roman Empire as “dark” in comparison to the classical era.

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