The Origin of the Mongols is unclear but archeological evidence indicates that people lived in the vast territory of present-day Mongolia about 30,000 years ago, during the Upper Paleolithic Era. Important archeological evidence Pertaining to these times includes the finds from the Cave of Gurman Tsemher in Hovd aimag (province). The archeological finding has also been made, which prove that prehistoric people were living in this area 700 thousand years ago.
In this way, a hypothesis proposed in the nineteenth century gained acceptance: that from this particular territory of central Asia, a great migration of people spread out in different directions some 20,000 to 30,000 years ago. This theory suggested that central Asiatic peoples were the first to cross the narrow Bering Strait and establish human society on the American continent. The most recent genetic studies conducted in Mongolia have confirmed that a massive migration of people from president-day Mongolia and adjacent territories of Eastern Central Asia to North Asia, took place during the Stone Age. The research indicates that these ancient peoples moved not only to the northern area of the Asian continent but even further, to America. This, however, does not imply that native Americans are of Mongol stock but merely suggests that the two ethnic groups are of the same origin. The Central Asia roots of native American are confirmed by the findings of archeological, anthropological and other scientific investigations. The earliest historical records indicate that three large ethnic groups, the Tungus, the Turks, and the Mongols, lived together in the vast land of today’s Mongolia. And generations of interbreeding led to dozens of ethnic groups that now fall under the Altaic family of languages.
- 700 000 years ago: Mankind’s ancestor lived in present-day Mongolia.
- 100 000-800 000 years ago: Lower Paleolithic Period. The ancient people living in present-day Mongolia started using stone tools with sharpened edges, animal bones, and wooden clubs.
- 40 000-100 000 years ago: Middle Paleolithic Period. Weapons and tools took on triangular shapes. The ancient people developed methods of starting fires.
- 15 000-40 000 years ago: The Upper Paleolithic Period. Settlements inhabited by Homo sapiens. Matriarchal tribes formed. New types of weapons were invented, and wooden and bone handles were added to lightweight weapons. the emergence of rudimentary art forms.
- 8000-15000 years ago: Mesolithic Period. The Natural habitat, geography, animals, and plants of Central Asia developed into their present forms. Bows and arrows invented. The establishment of animal husbandry on the Mongolian plateau.
- 3000-8000 years ago New techniques to polish, sharpen and hollow stones were invented. Clay vases and pots were produced. The foundations of agriculture were established.
- 3000 B.C: Eneolithic Period. Copper, the first types of metal was utilized. The Eneolithic period constitutes a short transitional period between the Stone Age and the Bronze Age.
- 2000 B.C: The production of bronze, an alloy of copper and tin. Patriarchy became the dominant form of social organization.
- 700 B.C: The people who inhabited present-day Mongolia entered the Iron Age. As they discovered new ways to melt Iron are, they began to make iron tools and weapons. Tribes disintegrated and new social organizations formed.