It is true that 42.7% of total Mongolian land is Gobi Desert, out of which only 5% is covered by sand. There are a total 33 Gobi Deserts in Mongolia and the biggest is called “Galbyn Gobi”. It is located in Khanbogd soum, Omnogobi province, and its 200 km long and 50 km wide. The Gobi has a harsh climate with temperatures of + 40 ° C in summer and -40 ° C in winter. The average annual rainfall is less than 100 mm, and in some places, it rains only once every two to three years. Only 30% of Gobi is covered with Greenery. Only around 300 species of vegetation that grow in the Gobi desert are generating flora of this region. Drought-tolerant saxaul, elm, poplar, tamarisk evergreen shrub, nitraria grow in long-rooted, low-crowned woody, shrubby valleys and streams. Even some of the area is covered with black soil.
However, the vegetation species are few, but it is nutritious, have long roots, is drought tolerant, and the roots can regenerate even after many years. There are about 1,100 medicinal plants in Mongolia, of which 345 species grow in the Gobi. Saxaul is one of the magic plants that grow in dry conditions. Because the roots grow to a depth of 5 meters and its branches grow 5-10 meters in each direction saxaul trees stand very firmly on the ground, resist any strong winds and help to stabilize the movement of sand. The Gobi region has a very unique fauna that is adapted to the climate, surface, and soil conditions of this area. The world’s most endangered species listed in the Red Book, such as wild ass, the Przewalski’s horse, argali, ibex, Gobi bear, wolf, saiga antelope, black-tailed deer, gazelle, reed pig, leopard etc. as well as many species of reptiles, such as snakes, lizards, goats, spiders, white camels, and barnacles. Birds include clover, falcon, snow leopard, vole, wild ass, falcon, and desert falcon. When we think of the Gobi, the first thing that comes to mind is sand. When the wind blows in the Gobi, very fine grains of sand are blown away and make a whispering sound, if you can listen carefully it sounds like a melody.