Choibalsan had been thinking a lot about Great Mongolia. He seems to have been deeply imbued with the idea of uniting it while was in a close relationship with Rinchino. However, he saw with his own eyes how the USSR would hinder this vision. Even the territory of Buriat-Mongol had been divided by the Russians into several parts, which no longer bordered each other. Therefore, after the war, he started thinking about uniting Outer and Inner Mongolia.
He expressed his idea to Stalin several times and begged his assistance. Stalin though, perhaps wanting to tease him, replied without any objection that should ask Chiang Kai-shek or Mao, or else that they should talk together and decide what to do. Sometimes Choibalsan broached the future of Outer and Inner Mongolia and asked whether they should be combined or not.
Since his youth, Choibalsan had fought for the independence of Mongolia. He had dedicated all his life to Mongolia, his ultimate desire was to unite the divided Mongolians, spread across Central Asia, and create a single united independent country. He had become, during the 1940s, especially interested in the history of Mongolia. He hoped that if he talked with Stalin and got his agreement, it would be possible to unite Outer and Inner Mongolia.
Right before Mongolia’s declaration of war against Japan, the Kalmyk “Mongolist” Dylykov suddenly arrived in Ulaanbaatar. He declared that the two Mongolians were blood relatives and brought a letter stating that the war was ending and that it was time to unite. This letter was initiated and written by Stalin and sent by Dylykov to Mongolia as a propaganda leaflet. A meeting of the Politburo was held immediately, and the letter was converted into a statement by Choibalsan and issued the next day through the media, as suggested by Dylykov. It was decided to publish this in many thousands of copies and distribute it to Inner Mongolians, scattered from an airplane. However, the war had begun, and the order not to distribute printed propaganda leaflets had come from Moscow, so the statement was burnt and destroyed.
Since an issue regarding “the recognition of the current borders of Outer Mongolia”, was approved according to the protocol of the agreement on friendship and alliance between the Soviet Union and China signed on 14 August 1945, so Choibalsan’s statement becomes unnecessary.
Another issue posed by S.D, Dylykov in Ulaanbaatar was the question regarding N.Demchignorov, who was a leader of Inner Mongolia. A statement was to be issued saying that N.Demchignorov was an enemy of Mongolians and should be taken, prisoner. However, members of the Politburo really believed in Stalin’s instruction, which rather than rejecting N.Demchignorob, declared that he should be involved in the case. He put forward the idea that the future federal state of Inner Mongolia should be headed by N.demchignorov, Outer Mongolia by Bumtsend, and unified Mongolia by Choibalsan.
After the war, it was realized that it would be impossible to unite Inner Mongolia, and Choibalsan called on Inner Mongolians to come and live in the territory of Mongolia. As a result, many families migrated to live in Mongolia.
23rd Resolution of the People’s Lower Khural Dated 24 April 1946
… The following 2087 people should be considered the citizens of this country. To commend to the Ministry of Choibalsan aimag to organize them into a small administrative unit (somon) based on wishes of the Barga and Uzemchin ethnicities and to create somon administration under their voluntary base.
A Word for Toast
One time Stalin raised a toast: “All Mongolians should have a single leader in order to be united. This toast is to all Mongolians, being united under Marshal Choibalsan”.
In fact, Stalin knew perfectly well the impossibility of such an association. What was needed for him was a recognized independent Outer Mongolia. Combining Mongolia might be possible if China lost the war. But China had been a very influential country in federal. On the other hand, there could be a violent fight between the Kuomintang and the communists after the war and the results would naturally take their course.
Stalin was giving not only to Choibalsan but also to China. In February 1938, Sun Fo, a special representative of Chiang Kai-shek, secretly arrived in Moscow. Once the war with Japan had begun, Chang asked Russia to declare war on Japan. Stalin refused immediately. However, one evening during a reception at his home, he said: “History loves jokes. Sometimes history lets the fools lead from the top, which makes a history disorderly. Now, the Japanese military has turned to just such fools. Japan cannot beat China in the war. I raise this toast for powerful China, with a unified Xinjiang and Outer Mongolia”.
At that time Manchuria and Inner Mongolia were under the rule of Japan. While, Choibalsan wished to reunite Xinjiang and Outer Mongolia into China, which was under his control.
- 1947: Resolution on the protection of social and cooperative property was adopted.
- December: First Five-Five Plan to develop the national economy and culture was approved by the XI Great Khural of MPRP.
- 1948: An agreement on educating Mongolian people in an institution of higher education institutions in the Soviet Union was established. The third Symposium of the State Leading Herders was organized.
- 1949: The Great State IX Khural was held and a speech about government duty and the improvement of the electoral system was discussed.
- 26 August: Decree to release the farmers from their duty at horse relay stations was adopted.
- November: The first railway from Naushki to Ulaanbaatar entered operation. The resolutions “People’s Reading”, and “Teaching history and literature in schools of the Mongolian People’s Republic” were adopted.